Resilience Theory

Resilience Theory

Natural disaster, crime, war, accident and abuse are an unfortunate but sometimes unavoidable part of life.

Psychologists, psychiatrists and pediatricians have long been fascinated by the striking fact that when facing adversity, some children come out relatively unscathed while others crumble.

In this article, we will examine what resilience theory is and how it can help us parent.

boy jumps on bed - resilience theory

What Is Resilience Theory

Resilience theory is the conceptual framework for understanding how some individuals can bounce back in life after experiencing adverse situation in a strength-focused approach​1​.

The roots f resilience research can be traced back to half a century ago when psychologists studied the outcomes of children who at were high risk for psychopathology.

Among these children, a subgroup of them did not develop any psychopathological disorder and grew up with surprisingly healthy pattern.

In the past, psychology researchers often focused on identifying risk factors and vulnerabilities that could contribute to poor outcomes in children​2​.

This deficit-focused approach in developmental research was replaced by a strength-focused approach when resilience researchers started looking into the positive variables that contributed to good outcomes in at-risk children.

Resilience theories were then proposed to explain what and how these promotive factors work to help children overcome negative impacts of risk exposure​3​.

boy bury his head feeling sad - resiliency theory

Resilience Theory Characteristics

Unlike most other theories, resilience theory is not a set of determined hypothesis or principles.

Rather, it is a framework that keeps evolving over the years as researchers learn more through studies and analyses.

In fact, there have been four waves of resilience research that have continuously refined and redefined resilience​4​.

Among the many different models of resilience theory, several common have characteristics emerged and are agreed upon by most researchers.

Static Traits vs Dynamic Process

In the early days of resilience research, psychologists focused on identifying the personal traits responsible for the positive outcomes in that subset of children.

The assumption was that resilience was created by some static internal quality of an individual.

Over time, researchers realized that resilience is more than just personality traits. Instead, resilience is the capacity of a dynamic process adapting successfully to disturbances that threaten a child’s function and development​5​.

mother consoles sad boy - what is resilience theory

Extraordinary Asset vs Ordinary Resources

Early resilience researchers often described children who showed resilient adaptation as invulnerable or invincible as if only certain extraordinary people were able to overcome extremely harsh conditions.

Despite differences in various resilience models, researchers later found that resilience was actually quite common when the operation of basic human adaptation systems were protected and in good working order. But if those systems were impaired, then the risk for developmental problems became much bigger.

Resilience expert, Ann S. Masten, called this the Ordinary Magic​6​.

Three types of protective factors are found to protect those adaptation systems: individual, family and community.

Although individual assets such as temperament, intelligence and genders do contribute to resilience, factors that reside outside individuals often play a significant role in determining whether a person can adapt positively.

These are ordinary resources one can draw from family and community, such as parental support, adult mentors, close community and safe neighborhood.

Fixed vs Variable

Another new concept about resilience is that it can potentially fluctuate over time and across different domains.

Adaptation is not a fixed system; rather, it is a developmental progression with new strengths and vulnerabilities coming from different life events over time.

Resilience is also not a across-the-board phenomenon. A child can adapt well in one domain but struggle in another.

mom hugs girl by the window - what is resiliency theory

Resilience vs Resiliency Theory

Because resilience is a dynamic variable process and most protective factors come from outside of an individual, many researchers now refer to it as resilience or resilient adaptation, rather than resiliency or resilient child because the latter implies it is a quality of the individual.

Final Thoughts On Resilience Theory

Resilience is a simple concept — bouncing back after adversity. But defining, analyzing and understanding resilience is a complex subject in psychology. Many resilience models have been developed and the ongoing neuroscience studies have contributed to the understanding.

Despite the research complexity, one thing is obvious and simple for parents: to build resilience, we have to do our part to connect with our children and provide good parenting.


  1. 1.
    MASTEN AS, OBRADOVIC J. Competence and Resilience in Development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. December 2006:13-27. doi:10.1196/annals.1376.003
  2. 2.
    Zimmerman MA. Resiliency Theory. Health Educ Behav. July 2013:381-383. doi:10.1177/1090198113493782
  3. 3.
    Fergus S, Zimmerman MA. ADOLESCENT RESILIENCE: A Framework for Understanding Healthy Development in the Face of Risk. Annu Rev Public Health. April 2005:399-419. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144357
  4. 4.
    Wright MO, Masten AS, Narayan AJ. Resilience Processes in Development: Four Waves of Research on Positive Adaptation in the Context of Adversity. In: Handbook of Resilience in Children. Springer US; 2012:15-37. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3661-4_2
  5. 5.
    Masten AS. Global Perspectives on Resilience in Children and Youth. Child Dev. December 2013:6-20. doi:10.1111/cdev.12205
  6. 6.
    Masten AS. Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist. 2001:227-238. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.227

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